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Field's Test for Series Motors and Answers on D.C. Motors. 2. Transformer. . Some simple aspects of an electrical machine (motor / generator) have to be noted.
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A lon g-time subme rs ible machine is a totally enclosed ma chine so construct ed th at it can be held underwater Ior an unlim ited spa n of tim e. An explosion-proof machine is a to tally enclosed ma chine whose enclosur e is desi gned and constructed so as not to cause the ign ition or explosion of an ambient atmos- ph ere of the spec ific dust and also not to cause the ign ition of the dust on or around the machine.
A weather-protected m ach ine is an open machine 01' a t otally enclosed m achine design ed for service at elevated relative humidity. A frost-proof machine is a t otally enclosed ma chine designed and const ruct ed so as to be able to operate with ho ar-frost forming on the enclosure. A chem ica l-pr oof m achine is a to tally enclosed ma- ch ine designed an d const ructed so as to be able to opera te in the presence of chem ica lly act ive substa nces. A t ropicali zed machin e is a mach in e capa ble of opera- t ing under condit ions of likely fu ngous growth. For ex ample, th ey ma yor m ay no t use a fan or a blow er to supply cooli ng.
In th e latter cas e, th ey are classed as na turally air-cooled. In them , cooling a it' is mad e to circula te by the rotatin g parts of the machine and by conve cti on.
This form of cooling is ordinarily limited to open ma chines. Anoth er major class includes forc ed-cooled machines. Class ification of Electric al Machines. Another di stinct. Some of t he m h ave a blow er Fig. This form of cooling is appli ed to enclosed machines. In othe rs Fig.
In m edium-rated enclosed machi nes us ing blowers an d intend ed for op eration in a dus t-l ad en air, it is usual to add a bu il t -in fan for better a il' circ ulation inside t he mach ine and for better heat t r an sport from t he hotter to the col der p arts cool ed by a blo wer. In self-ven t il at ed m achines, the cooli ng ail' ma y be cause d to flo w axia lly as in Fig. Th e cooli ng syst em may he eithe r open- circui t or close d- I[ circu it.
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Open-circuit ven til ation is ordin arily use d in guard- ed or partiall y encl osed mach ines, with t he coola nt scoope d or dr awn in from inside or ou ts ide t he h all or room wher e th e ma chine is in st alled , and th e outgoi ng coolant is eithe r disch arged in side the room or carried outside, as the case may he.
For small - and mediu m-r ated ma chi nes in stalled in spa - cious room s with a cl ean at mosphere, th e coolant may he hath drawn in from and expelled into t he room , as in F ig. For enc lose d mach in es ins talled in rooms with a poll uted at mosphe re, cooling air is scooped from th e outside an d guid- ed by a p ipe or pipes in to t he mach ine fr om wh ich t he ho t air is exp elled outside likewis e by a pipe or pipes p ipe- ve ntila te d mach ines, as in F ig.
For large machin es , i t is preferabl e to scoop cooling ai r from th e rooms where th ey a re ins tall ed , an d to di sch arge th e Ioul ai r by a pipe outside so as to avo id h ealin g th e atm osph ere ind oors.
Closed-circuit ventilation is preferable for large machines of the totally enclosed type. After the ventilating medium air or, frequ ently , hydrogen , held at a constant volu me , has been heated by circulating through the various parts of the ma chine, it is cool ed by pa ssing it through a fin-tube cooler in which cooling water is circulated as in Fig.
Sometimes, the cool er m ay be built into the machine. The coolant may be air, hydrogen, oil, or water. Some - tim es, a combination of severa l cool ants may be used in the same machine say, hydrogen to cool the rotor and oil to cool the stator of a turboalternator. In some cases , cooling is provided by causing a coolant to evaporat e. Quite ap tly, this is ref err ed to as ev aporative cooling. The windings of a machine m ay likewise be cool ed in any one of sev eral wa ys.
Electrical machines: Vol. 2 - A. V. Ivanov-Smolenskij - Google книги
For example, the cool ant mayor may not com e in direct contact with the conductors. This res- pectively is direct and indirect cooli ng.
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In the case of direct cooling, machines ordinarily have ventilating ducts to guide the coolant as appropriate. The ducts take the form of thin- walled, nonmagnetic conduits given a thin layer of insulation and built into the windings. Such an arrangement is employ- ed in he avy-duty, l ar ge-po wer machines, such as large- size steam-turbine and water-wheel al tern at ors, and sup er- heavy squirrel-ca ge induction mot ors see Sec.
Th e no ise produced by an elec tr ical machine com es from several sour ces, namely :. Classification of Elect rical Machin es.
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The objecti ves of t he standards covering commerc ially available elec trical ma chines in the USSR ar e to make the ma chines int erchangeable as regards mo unting di men sions, lead and te rminal design ation , power ratings, voltage r atings, and speed ratings. Le ad and term inal desi gn ations ar e given in GOST Spe ed ra t ings ar e give n in GOST The principal requirements to be complied with by elec- trical machines of any type and design ar e given in the Sovi et standards listed below.
GOST Electri cal m achines.
General requ iremen ts. Electrical mach ines. Power r atings up to 10 MW. GOST ' E lectrica l mach ines. Speed r a ti ngs an d t olerances.
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Electrical machines, low-power. Moun t- ing dimensions. Mounting arrangements. Electrical m achines. Tol erances on mo unt- ing dim ens ions. Ch, 34 Mechanical Design GOST '1 Electrical machines.
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R esidual rotor di s- bal an ee. Li mits an d m ethods of measurements. Electrical machines and di rect-coupled no ne lect r ieal machines. Axi al heights and dim ensions. Elec trical ma ch in es. Enclosures and type desi gnations. E lectri cal machines. Sh aft ex te ns ions , cy li ndr ical. Shaft ex tensions, t ap er ed. COST '1 Electri cal mach ines, ro ta ting.
Noise level li mi ts. E lectrical mach ines. Form s , te rms an d defini tions. Th e elem ents are checke d for st re ng th and ri gidity as a part of th e m echanic al ana lys is and desi gn of a mach in e, which reduces to determinin g the stresses and strains that may be indu ced by the various forces and m om ent s mech anic- al and electromagnetic.
To begin wi th, cons ider the me ch an ical ana lysis of the me m bers transmitting mecha nica l power. In t he generating m ode of op era ti on , input mech anical power is conveyed t o t he conversion asse mbly where it is t urne d in t o electric power see F ig. Let us tak e a closer look at how mech an ical pow er is t rans mit t ed alon g the sh aft of th e m achin e.
Classi fication of El ectrical Machines. An enlarged shaft de- tail at section I -I is shown in Fi g. Th e two torques stress the shaft. The part of th e shaft to th e left of sectio n I -I trans- mits the torque to th e r igh t- hand part of the sha ft by v ir tue of the t angent ial stres- S I -I ses "tv induced in the eleme nts dS of tha t sect ion.
Th e stres- ses ar e proportional to the Fig.