Guide Standard Ieee 1394 Firewire

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9-pin FireWire was introduced commercially by while the IEEE a and IEEE b standards are.
Table of contents

What Is FireWire?

The UTP5 interface, using Cat-5 cable and RJ45 connectors, is intended for runs of up to metres in an intrabuilding environment. The transmit path is on connector pins 1 and 2, the receive path on 7 and 8. Electrical signalling uses a peak to peak voltage of 1 Volt, and adaptive equalisation is used to get the required bandwidth from the cable medium. The plastic optical fibre variants are designed to complement the UTP5 variant, by providing a low cost alternative which is free of emission and common mode or crosstalk problems.


  • Standard Ieee 1394 Firewire;
  • What is IEEE Interface? - Definition from Techopedia.
  • Automorphisms of First-Order Structures;
  • File Extensions and File Formats.
  • WHAT THE TRIUNE GOD HAS DONE FOR US;

The standard supports two plastic fibre formats with an identical two fibre PN connector. The shorter ranging and cheaper ranging POF variant uses a micron step index plastic fibre usable to 50 metres, the HPCF variant uses as micron graded index fibre.

The beginning

Finally, the best speed performance is provided by using a 50 micron graded index glass fibre, exploiting fibre channel and Gigabit Ethernet transceiver technology and an LC connector format. This variant is to provide the growth path to S 3. The biggest performance hindrance encountered in the design of the b specification was due to arbitration gaps. In , a device must wait for an idle bus, then arbitrate to acquire the bus, transmit its packet, and then idle awaiting the arrival of the acknowledgement ACK packet from the recipient device.

Firewire IEEE 1394 6 Pin Female To USB 2.0 Male Adapter Converter NOT Working

The gap time between the end of the packet and the arrival of the ACK in must be greater than the round trip propagation delay across the bus topology. This did not prove to be a problem with large packet sizes, even with up to 16 hops to cover in a daisy chain bus.

However, since this is a fixed overhead incurred per packet, as the packet size is decreased it bit increasingly into the available transmission time. Some measures were taken in the a standard to address this problem, involving manipulation of the arbitration scheme, concatenation of data packets to reduce the average overhead, and other measures. These were not found to be adequate for the b environment, and thus the full duplex model was adopted, in a large part to allow the pipelining of arbitration requests. In additional changes were made to the arbitration protocol.

An additional feature under consideration was loop healing, intended to automatically identify loops in the bus and break these to achieve a valid topology. In effect, the b standard would be idiot proof. The IEEE spec defined the Firewire standard, and the subsequent a standard plugged numerous holes, in effect becoming a bugfix standard with additional extensions.

The aim of a was in part to rapidly field the S speed variant to accommodate contemporary disk drives, in competition with newer UltraSCSI variants. The b standard then extends a to further improve speed and acheivable distance, thereby accommodating applications currently covered by Fiber Channel and Gigabit Ethernet.

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FireWire IEEE 1394 a / b

Other variants exist. The The standard also defines bridge behaviour, with a view to covering consumer household applications. Somewhat more controversial is the The USB standard is frequently portrayed as a cheaper and more practical alternative to Firewire. This is somewhat misleading, since the USB protocol is designed for quite different applications. While Firewire is clearly targeted at performance intensive uses, and indeed has been pushed out to seduce the Fibre Channel, UltraSCSI and Gigabit Ethernet user base, USB is aimed at much slower applications with the aim of simplifying the cabling to modems, mice, keyboards, trackballs, joysticks, tablets, CD-ROMs, printers and other miscellania.

While the standard could be extended, it is questionable whether this is worthwhile given the head start held by the Firewire community. Reading the marketing literature surrounding Firewire, one would quickly reach the conclusion that everything should be networked using Firewire, and indeed it is the universal connectivity panacea which solves all such problems!

Reality at this time is a little more mundane. Firewire is well established in two market niches. The first is digital video and multimedia, where its throughput and robust isochronous transmission support will be hard to beat. It is likely to eventually usurp this market as the standard, being used to interconnect desktop machines, digital televisions, DVD players, hi-fi systems and any other devices which eventually find their way into the household entertainment complex.

The second market where Firewire is becoming well established is as a peripheral interconnect for Apple machines and Apple clones. Given the availability of PCI and Sbus adaptors, we may see this niche expand to encompass other categories of desktop machine. For most of the medium speed peripherals in the market, an S or S Firewire interface will be more than adequate.

What does IEEE , Firewire and iLink mean?

The big question is the longer term competitiveness of Firewire in the critical high speed fixed disk market, where SCSI reigns supreme at the performance end of market. Firewire as a serial bus will always be easier to cable than a parallel SCSI bus, but it will be handicapped by the need to be clocked at 8, 16 or 32 times the speed of a competing SCSI variant to acheive the same throughput. The most recent SCSI variants use a tree topology with repeaters, thereby bypassing the nasty bottlenecks resulting from multidrop technology.

This made the isochronous transport method ideal for multimedia purposes like professional audio and video, which previously required special hardware to transfer onto a computer for editing. Apple assigned analog engineers Roger Van Brunt and Florin Oprescu to the group to design the physical layer—the wires and electrical signals that run on them—and to implement the technology in a faster interface. Van Brunt determined that they could avoid optics by using a twisted pair of wires. That would get them the extra speed without increasing the cost. We joined forces. But they wanted megabits a second.

To get the extra bandwidth, the team turned to a company called STMicroelectronics. These guys had a trick that would double the bandwidth on a cable at no cost thanks to a clocking mechanism in layman's terms, a way of coordinating the behavior of different elements in a circuit called data-strobe encoding. Now they needed a connector. Macs of the era had three different round connectors; PCs likewise had a mix of similar-looking connectors.

They asked Apple's resident connector expert what they should use.

IEEE 1394/FireWire characteristics:

He noted that Nintendo's Game Boy link cable was unlike anything else, and they could make it unique to their technology by swapping the polarization around. The connector could use exactly the same technology—same pins and everything—and it would look different. Better yet, the Game Boy link cable was the first major connector that put the fragile springy parts inside the cable. That way, when the springy bits wear out, you just have to buy a new cable rather than replace or repair the device.

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