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The Mapping of the Entradas Into the Greater Southwest. Front Cover. Dennis Reinhartz, Gerald D. Saxon. University of Oklahoma Press, - History -
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- Dennis Reinhartz (Author of The Art of the Map)
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- The Mapping of the Entradas into the Greater Southwest
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View Larger Image. Ask Seller a Question. Title: The Mapping of the Entradas into the Greater Dust Jacket Condition: Near Fine. In this groundbreaking and lavishly illustrated volume edited by Dennis Reinhartz and Gerald D. Saxon, five leading scholars in history, geography, and cartography discuss the role Spanish explorers and mapmakers played in bringing knowledge of the New World to Europe. This body of images, which incorporated Indian information, made a powerful impression on the still largely preliterate people of Europe, reshaping their world. Visit Seller's Storefront.
All subject to prior sale, returns accepted within 7 days if not as described, with prior approval. These rates are for continental USA. In reality, La Salle's expedition focused Spanish attention on East Texas, where success was hard to come by. The Spanish also underestimated the impending French threat to Louisiana. Officials in Mexico City viewed the disastrous failure of La Salle's colony as evidence of God's "divine aid and favor. De Leon, however, wisely suggested the placement of presidios to bridge the gap between settlements in Coahuila and the proposed new mission field.
If his suggestions had been accepted, the subsequent disasters in East Texas might well have been lessened, if not avoided. Nevertheless, officials in the capital concluded, with Massanet's endorsement, that military presence would impede spreading the Gospel. The priests, expecting a rebellion, buried the cannons and bells, ignited the mission, and went back to Coahuila.
Dennis Reinhartz (Author of The Art of the Map)
But the mission effort in East Texas had familiarized Spaniards with the geography and Indians of Texas and convinced both church and government officials that future missions must be sustained by presidios and civilian settlements. For one of the missionaries, Father Francisco Hidalgo , unfinished work among the Tejas Indians became a consuming passion. At the close of the seventeenth century, because of mining, ranching, and Hidalgo's unswerving commitment to missionary goals in East Texas, Spanish settlement in northern Mexico had advanced to the Rio Grande.
By then the French had resurrected La Salle's plan to settle the lower Mississippi valley.
In early the arrival of fresh supplies and reinforcements brought from France by Iberville strengthened French presence in Louisiana. Accompanying him was a relative by marriage, Louis Juchereau de St. Denis , a Canadian-born adventurer who changed the course of Texas history. Despite Iberville's best efforts, the crown colony of Louisiana suffered neglect due in part to resumption of the costly wars of Louis XIV — In an effort to reduce royal expenses, Louisiana was assigned as a proprietary colony to a wealthy Frenchman, Antoine Crozat. Cadillac's duties were obvious.
He had to run the colony in a businesslike manner and find a way to turn a profit. He concluded that the desired avenue of riches lay in establishing trade with New Spain, a commerce he knew to be forbidden by Spanish mercantile restrictions. At that juncture, however, Cadillac received a letter, drafted two years earlier, from Father Hidalgo. Hidalgo had despaired of winning support from the Spanish crown for his plans to reestablish missions among the Hasinais. His letter asked the French governor to assist him in accomplishing that goal. For Cadillac it was an invitation to do God's work and his own.
He called on St. Denis, who had become skilled in diplomacy and Indian languages and had already made explorations beyond the Red River, to make overtures to the Spanish. Denis set out in late September and traveled to the site of Natchitoches, where he stored some of his merchandise. Twenty-two days after crossing the Sabine River, he reached the first Tejas villages and began trading for livestock, loosely managed by Indians, and buffalo hides.
But the French adventurer had more ambitious goals. Justifying his actions on the grounds that he had not found Father Hidalgo living among the Indians, he planned to push on toward Spanish settlements. In July , St. Denis arrived at San Juan Bautista, bearing a French passport and news that the Tejas Indians earnestly desired the return of Spanish missionaries.
His appearance alerted officials that the French were contacting Indians in East Texas and brought about the permanent Spanish occupation of Texas. Denis under house arrest while he awaited instructions from Mexico City. Denis was subsequently sent under guard to the capital, where he managed to charm the viceroy and obtain his freedom. Indeed, the chief executive of New Spain appointed St.
Denis as commissary and guide for the expedition to reestablish Spanish missions in East Texas. The religious contingent reestablished Mission San Francisco at a different site and renamed it San Francisco de los Neches.
The Mapping of the Entradas into the Greater Southwest
The reestablishment of missions and a presidio in East Texas was very important historically, because it gave Spain a valid claim to land north of the Rio Grande, did much to determine that Texas would be Spanish, not French, and helped advance the eventual boundary between Texas and the United States to the Sabine River. For the enterprising St. Denis, the presence of Spaniards near Louisiana opened the door for the contraband trade that became a way of life on the Texas frontier. Although the Spanish had received a friendly welcome from the Indians of East Texas, the latter were not willing to congregate in missions.
To do so would require them to give up their idols and religious temples, as well as an established way of life. To try to force compliance with the wishes of the missionaries was viewed as foolish, for the strength of the military guard was inadequate. Unless Spanish presence could be augmented and a halfway station established between the Rio Grande and the eastward missions, the occupation of Texas seemed destined to go as it had gone in The viceroy, at the instigation of Father Antonio de San Buenaventura y Olivares , made the suppression of illicit trade from Louisiana a primary objective.
He also pledged support for the Franciscan missions in Texas. Father Olivares had earlier visited a site on the San Antonio River in , and from that time forward he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there.
As it turned out, these institutions came none too soon. In a brief war in Europe between Spain and France affected Texas. From Natchitoches Philippe Blondel and six soldiers easily captured the poorly defended Adaes mission, but in the confusion a lay brother escaped.
He spread fear of an impending French attack throughout the mission outposts all the way to Presidio Dolores. He ordered immediate abandonment of the six missions and the military garrison, thus bringing an inglorious close to the second effort at establishing the Spanish in East Texas.
Fortunately, the retreating Spaniards found refuge at the new settlements on the San Antonio River.
At his own expense, he accepted the viceroy's request to deal with the troublesome situation in Texas and to undertake the establishment of missions in East Texas for a third time. In the early spring of , Aguayo set out for Texas. He had recruited men and collected 2, horses, 4, cattle, and 6, sheep and goats. Although livestock had accompanied previous entradas, Spanish ranching in Texas began with the arrival of these large herds in Denis, who had become commandant of the French settlement at Natchitoches.
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When Aguayo departed from Texas in May , he left a province that was soon separated from Coahuila. Across the province were ten missions and hundreds of potential neophytes. Although there was a continuing problem of smuggling between French Louisiana and Spanish Texas, the threat of French dominance in Texas was ended.
Peace in Europe and its implications for America prompted the king of Spain to order reforms within New Spain in the interest of economy. To that end the viceroy sent Gen. Rivera's recommendations in led to the reduction of troop strength at Los Adaes and to the abandonment of Presidio Dolores. Unfortunately for the settlement at San Antonio, the reduction of military strength in Texas left the settlement vulnerable to raids by the Apaches at the very time it was attempting to integrate an influx of very important settlers.
The presidio was to protect the missions in the area and serve as a way station between the Rio Grande and the East Texas missions. The arrival of the Canary Island settlers temporarily disrupted the racially harmonious community, but the threat of Indian attacks and frontier isolation soon eroded the Islanders' aloofness.
Indian attacks by the Apaches began in the s and worsened in the s with the appearance of the Comanches at San Antonio. Again, as De la Teja has remarked, "Shared roles, kinship ties, and the frontier experience tied much of Bexar's population into a dynamic community.